Abstract. The objective of this study was to identify the adaptability of twelve artemisia mutant genotypes, which were planted in three locations with different altitude, as a result of gamma irradiation. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was applied in this research with three replications as blocks. The genotypes 1B, 1C, 1D, 2, 3, 4, 5A, 6B, 7A, 8, 14, 15 and two control genotypes as parent genotype from seed and from in vitro were used. The genotypes were planted in three different locations such as Mount Putri, Cianjur (1450 m above sea level), Pacet, Cianjur (950 m above sea level) and Cicurug, Sukabumi (540 m above sea level). Based on the method of postdictive and predictive success, the model used was AMMI2 which was able to explain up to 100% of interaction-influenced variation. The genotypes which were found stabile and adaptive in these three locations were 1B, 1C, 1D, 6B and 15. Genotypes 3 and 7A were adaptive specifically in Pacet area, 5A was adaptive for Gunung Putri while genotype 4 was for Cicurug only.

Keywords: AMMI, Artemisia annua, mutant genotype, adaptability


Evaluasi Daya Gabung dan Heterosis Lima Galur Jagung Manis (Zea mays var. saccharata) Hasil Persilangan Dialel

Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengestimasi nilai daya gabung umum (DGU), daya gabung khusus (DGK), dan heterosis lima galur jagung manis untuk mendukung perakitan varietas hibrida. Lima galur jagung manis yang dijadikan tetua adalah Mr12/SC/BC4-6-1B-1, Mr14/SC/BC4-6-1B-1, Mr4/SC/BC4-2-1B-1, Mr11/SC/BC4-2-1B-1, dan Mr12/SC/BC3-3-1B-1. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April sampai Juni 2010 menggunakan Rancangan Kelompok Lengkap Teracak dengan dua ulangan, yang dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Maros, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Serealia (Balitsereal) Sulawesi Selatan. Nilai DGU dan DGK dianalisis berdasarkan metode I model tetap Griffi ng. Nilai heterosis dihitung berdasarkan nilai rata-rata kedua tetua dan heterobeltiosis dihitung berdasarkan nilai rata-rata tetua tertinggi. Persilangan B x D (Mr14/SC/BC4-6-1B-1 x Mr11/SC/BC4-2-1B-1) mempunyai nilai DGK tertinggi untuk hasil yaitu 990.67. Persilangan A x B (Mr12/SC/BC4-6-1B-1 x Mr14/SC/BC4-6-1B-1)mempunyai nilai DGK tertinggi untuk diameter tongkol yaitu 0.36. PersilanganA x D (Mr12/SC/BC4-6-1B-1 x Mr11/SC/BC4-2-1B-1) mempunyai nilai heterosis and heterobeltiosis tertinggi untuk hasil;Persilangan A x D (Mr12/SC/BC4-6-1B-1 x Mr11/SC/BC4-2-1B-1) mempunyai nilai heterosis and heterobeltiosis tertinggi untuk panjang tongkol. Persilangan A x B (Mr12/SC/BC4-6-1B-1 x Mr14/SC/BC4-6-1B-1) dan E x A (Mr12/SC/BC3-3-1B-1xMr12/SC/BC4-6-1B-1) mempunyai nilai heterosis and heterobeltiosis tertinggi untuk diameter tongkol.

Kata kunci: daya gabung, heterosis, jagung manis, persilangan dialel


Evaluation and Selection of Mutative Artemisia (Artemisia annua L.) According to the Altitude Variants

Abstract. Induction of genetic variant of Artemisia annua L. was conducted through the application of gamma ray irradiation in 2007-2008. The aim was to obtain a plant with high artemisine content > 0.5% and late flowering period of about > 7 month after planting. Tweleve selected genotypes were subsequently examined to gain genetic stability on altitude of 1500, 950, and 540 m asl. The results showed that the plants had shorter flowering age in Cicurug (540 m asl) than that of in Pacet (950 m asl) and Gunung Putri (1540 m asl). Genotype 8 had the latest age of flowering in the three locations than the other genotypes, however, the growth and biomass were the lowest. Vegetative growth of Artemisia in Pacet and Gunung Putri was better than those in Cicurug. Genotype of 15 in Cicurug and 5A genotype in Gunung Putri and Pacet had higher wet and dry weight than that of two other associates. Based on plant biomass, 5 genotypes from Gunung Putri and Pacet i.e. 1D, 3, 5A, 14, and 15 genotypes were selected, as well as 5 genotypes i.e. 1D, 3, 4, 5A, and 15 genotypes from Cicurug. Analisys on artemisin content successfully obtained 5 selected somaclone lines i.e. 1B, 2, 4, 14, and 3 somaclones.

Key words: Artemisia annua, mutation, genetic improvement, malaria, artemisinin


Parametric Stability Analysis for Yield of Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

Abstract. The objective of this study was to identify the stability of seven hybrid chili pepper genotypes that have been developed at Genetics and Plant Breeding Laboratory, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture IPB. The study used eight yield stability analyses and Additive Main Effect Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) methods. The design was randomized complete block design with three replications as blocks using the genotypes of IPB CH1, IPB CH2, IPB CH3, IPB CH5, IPB CH25, IPB CH28, IPB CH50, and fi ve commercial varieties, i.e. Adipati, Biola, Gada, Hot Beauty and Imperial. These genotypes were planted at six different locations at Ciherang, Leuwikopo, Tajur, Subang, Rembang and Boyolali. IPB CH28, IPB CH25, IPB CH1 and IPB CH2 were more stable cultivars than IPB CH3, IPB CH5, IPB CH50, Adipati and Biola, which had 10, 9, 8, and 6 out of all 10 stability statistics used, respectively. IPB CH28 and IPB CH25 being the most stable cultivars. IPB CH3 was the best genotype compared to the checks based on pair wise GxE interaction test. Based on post predictive success, the AMMI2 model was able to explain 85.51% of the interaction-infl uenced variation. The stable genotypes in six locations were IPB CH1, IPB CH2, IPB CH25, IPB CH28, and IPB CH50. IPB CH3 genotype was locally adapted for Subang.

Keywords: chili pepper, multi location trials, yield stability


Character, Xanthone Content and Antioxidant Properties of Mangosteen Fruit’s Hull (Garcinia mangostana L.) at Several Fruit Growth Stadia

Abstract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangosteen fruit’s hull, xanthone content, and antioxidant potential on various stadia of mangosteen fruit development. The experiment was conducted in September 2006 until July 2008 using randomized complete block design, with three replications at maturation stage i.e. 1, 2, 3, and 4 months after anthesis. The parameters being observed were fruit’s hull characters, xanthone content, and antioxidant capacity. The results of this study showed that fruit diameter and fruit weight increased until three months after anthesis and then did not change significantly once they entered the process of maturity. Thickness of fruit’s hull differed signifi cantly among maturation stage. The thickness of fruit hull was observed at two months and the highest weight was at three months after anthesis. Xanthone content of mangosteen fruit’s hull at a month up to four months after anthesis did not differ signifi cantly however capacity of antioxidant differed signifi cantly among fruit ages, the IC50 values increased with the increase of fruit maturation.

Keywords: Antioxidant, fruit growth, fruit’s hull, mangosteen, xanthone


Genetic variability in apomictic mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and its close relatives (Garcinia spp.) based on ISSR markers

Abstract. In order to reveal phylogenetic relationship of mangosteen and several close relatives (Garcinia spp.), we employed seven ISSR dinucleotide primer systems on eleven close relatives of mangosteen and 28 mangosteen accessions from four islands in Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Lombok). ISSR analysis successfully amplified 43 bands on average 6.1 fragments for each primer system, and these all fragments were polymorphic. Seven close relatives of mangosteen were separated with mangosteen accessions at 0.22 level of dissimilarity, while other four including G. malaccensis, were clustered with mangosteen accessions, this results supported proposal that G. malaccensis was allopolyploid derivative of mangosteen. Clustering pattern among mangosteen accessions, however, not represented their origin, indicated that distribution of the accessions was not linked to their genetic properties.

Key words: Garcinia spp., ISSR analysis, genetic diversity.