Keragaman Somaklonal untuk Perbaikan Tanaman Artemisia (Artemisia annua L.) melalui Kultur In Vitro

Abstract. Artemisia annua L., a family member of Asteraceae, is medicinal plants originated from China. The plant has been widely used by the local people for malaria remedy. Its active substance, artemisine, has been proved to hamper the malaria bacteria incubation, Plasmodium sp. In accordance with the WHO recomendation, the Department of Health of Indonesia is now in the attempt of developing this plant as the subtitute of chloroquin because of the malaria bacteria resistance to this antidote. In Indonesia, the artemisine content of the plant less than 0,5% is the crucial problem leading no investors are interested in its economic value. Therefore, Indonesian Medicinal and Spice Crops Research Institute; BPTO Tawangmangu, Indonesian Institute of Sciences; and PT Kimia Farma cooperate for obtaining the prime clone by breeding, selection, as well as environmental adaptation. In coping with the problem, ICABIOGRAD in the collaboration with Bogor Agricultural University have conducted the research for genetic improvement through mutative induction and field selection. This research on somaclonal variation. was conducted from Januari 2006 to Juni 2008. Eksplan used for experiment were shoots radiated with 10-100 Gy gamma ray. The result showed that the shoot radiated with the dosage of 70-100 Gy was unable to grow. On the other hand, the high level of multiplication was acquired in the one radiated with 10-30 Gy. The optimum radiation for somaclonal radiation was eventually gained with 40-60 Gy. The somaclone lines with 10-60 Gy radiation have been aclimatized and planted in Gunung Putri plot in the elevation of 1545 asl. Artemisinin content at the high biomases genotype is 0,49-0,52%.

Key words: Artemisia annua L., artemisinine, somaclone, varieties, gamma ray.


Heterosis and Combining Ability of Chilli Genotypes (Capsicum annuum L.) for Agronomy Characters in Half Diallel Crosses

Abstract. The objective of this research was to study heterosis and heterobeltiosis effects of fi fteen chili genotypes (Capsicum annuum L.), the general combining ability (GCA) and specifi c combining ability (SCA) of six chili inbred lines through half diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted from November 2008 to June 2009 using a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at IPB experimental fi eld, Leuwikopo, Darmaga. Heterosis values were predicted based on the average values of their parents whereas heterobeltiosis were predicted based on the average values of the highest parents. Analyses GCA and SCA were based on the Griffi ng’s fixed model of diallel design method II. Genotype IPB C2 had the highest GCA for fruit weight and fruit length. Genotype IPB C15 had the highest GCA for yield per plant and percentage of marketable fruit. Hybrid IPB C2 x IPB C14 and IPB C9 x IPB C14 had the highest heterosis, heterobeltiosis, and SCA for all fruit characters and yield per plant.

Keywords: chili, hybrid, heterobeltiosis, yield.


Yield Evaluation of Pepper Hybrids and Their Adaptation at Four Locations in Two Years

Abstract. The aim of the experiment was to study the performance of yield components of  eight pepper hybrids and their adaptation at four locations in two years (2008 and 2009). The experimental design used was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), three replications as a block was nested in the location. Plant materials were eight hybrids (IPB CH1, IPB CH2, IPB CH3, IPB CH25, and four comercial hybrids were Adipati, Biola, Gada, and Hot Beauty). The IPB CH3 hybrid produced higher fruit width, fruit length, fruit weight, fruit fl esh density and yield per plant compared to comercial hybrids. Days to  flowering and days to harvesting of IPB CH3 was earlier than that of Hot Beauty. The performance of yield characters in Boyolali, Rembang and Subang was better than that in Bogor. The IPB CH3 hybrid was specifi cally adapted to Subang and Rembang, while IPB CH1, IPB CH2, IPB CH25 were suitable for Boyolali.

Keywords: fruit, yield components, genotype x location interaction, Capsicum annuum L.



Abstract. The objective of this research was to estimated heritability and variability of agronomic characters and yield evaluation on F4 generations of pepper. This research was conducted at Ciampea, Bogor. The experimental design used was arranged in Augmented Designs. Plant materials were 41 F4 genotypes and 2 check varieties. The result indicated that the character of plant height, dichotomus height, stem diameter, yield per plant, fruit per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter, and fruit flesh thickness had broad genetic variability and high broad-sense heritability. The character of time of flowering, time of harvest and fruit weight had narrow genetic variability and low to medium broad-sense heritability. There were 7 selected genotypes: CCA 5511-6-3, CCA 5511-6-2, CCA 5708-1-1, CCA 5520-2-1, CCA 5511-3-1, CCA 5511-8-3, and CCA


The Genetic x Environmental Interaction for Resistance of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum

Abstract. Appearance of a plant is determined by genetic factors, environmental factors and interactions between them. The genetic x environment interactions become an important concern for breeders, in addition to genetic factors. Purpose of this study was to examine the genetic x environment interactions for resistance of pepper to anthracnose. Materials used were 16 hybrids that were planted at three locations. Complete randomized block design (RCBD) was used with three replications. Replicates nested within location. Twenty of hot pepper that has been worn but is still green from each replication was inoculated with C. acutatum, PYK 04 isolate. Disease incidence was observed five days after inoculation. The results showed that the genotype x location interaction was significant different to resistance resistance caused by Colletotrichum acutatum PYK 04 isolate. Pepper genotypes stable in anthracnose resistant character in three selection environments was IPB CH3, IPB CH6, and IPB CH25. The genotypes were suitable for selection environment Ciherang, Leuwikopo and Tajur. Genotype IPB CH50 and IPB CH51 were suitable for selection environment Tajur. Imperial genotypes was suitable for the environment selection Ciherang. IPB CH5 and IPB CH4 CH5 were suitable for Lewikopo environment.

Keywords:genetic x environmental interaction, anthracnose, resistance, pepper, Colletotrichum acutatum


Relationships among Papaya Genotypes Based on Morphological and Fruit Characters

Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variation and relationships among  papaya genotypes based on morphological  and fruit characteristics  in order to produce  high quality papaya fruits. Fruit characterization study is very useful for  genotype improvement and genotype classifi cation of papaya. In this study the morphological characters of 36 genotypes were  analyzed to determine their phenotypic variabilities.  The relationships between genotypes based on all of the morphological  and fruit characteristics were tested by subjecting the data to multivariate principal component analysis and to cluster analysis. Based on the dendrogram generated from vegetative and generative characters, the 36 genotypes could be grouped into 11 clusters on a threshold of 1.6 and formed 6 clusters on a threshold of 1.8.  The dendrogram was able to explain the  close relationship between IPB 5 x IPB 1 and IPB 5 x IPB 4, IPB 2 and IPB 7, IPB 1 and IPB 3 genotype. The scattered  diagram of generative variable divided the papaya genotypes into three groups based on fruit sizes i.e small group (IPB 1, IPB 3, IPB 4, IPB 3 x IPB 4, IPB 1 x IPB 9), medium group (IPB 5, IPB 7, IPB 8, IPB 9) and big group (IPB 2, IPB 10). The IPB 1, IPB 3 and IPB 4 were different from IPB 2 in fruit shapes, petal length of male fl owers, infl orescence size and  fruit length. The hybrid plants obtained from crossings with IPB 10 were different from the other genotypes in the colours of female-, hermaphrodite-, and male fl ower-lobes. Subsequently the scatter diagrams also revealed that several genotypes i.e. IPB 2 x IPB 6, IPB 1 x IPB 5,  IPB 1 x IPB 9, IPB 5 x IPB 1 and IPB 5 x IPB 2 had superior characters  ideotype similar to IPB 1, IPB 3 and IPB 8 genotypes.

Keywords: Carica papaya, hermaphrodite, female, dendrogram, scatter diagram, ideotype